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Bibliography & Referencing

When to cite

In order to avoid plagiarism, credit must be given to the sources you have used in your research paper. Acknowledge the sources by stating in a citation where you found a particular piece of data. The purposes of such acknowledgments are:

  • to enable the reader to pursue further an idea or fact which is of interest
  • to give credit to the person whose work you have read

Citations are required when you use:

  •     a direct quotation
  •     an indirect quotation
  •     a paraphrase
  •     an opinion or conclusion not originally yours
  •     a statistic or result of a study
  •     a distinctive form or organization
  •     a fact not part of common knowledge

Citations may not be needed for information considered common knowledge, such as:

  •     dates
  •     achievements
  •     religious beliefs
  •     facts that can readily be found in at least three separate sources

Use a web portal to help you create your Bibliography; such as Citation Machine.

For further information speak with your Librarian or look at: Modern Language Association or Documenting Sources with The Owl at Purdue University.